microstructure of bainite

Bainite in Steels

Funny point of view

Here is what bainite formation looks like. Simple? Don't make conclusions too fast.

Kinetics of bainite transformation

Discussion about the mechanism of phase transformation lasts till now.
Here is the main question about transformation mechanism: is it displacive or diffusion-controlled?

It seems there are two statements, that no one could be against:
1. The temperature of bainite formation (150-350 oC) is too low for diffusion transformation.
2. The growth speed of bainitic plates is too low for displacive transformation.

Paradoxical situation. However, here is one of attempts to reconcile the interests:
Formation of bainite as a diffusional-displacive phase transformation

This video also could help scientists to get some common point in this bainite controversy...

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We also have a list of bainite-related resources (see below). If you can suggest something more to add here - please contact.

Blogs, personal pages etc.

Bainite blog by Mathew Peet

Books and Book Chapters

Advanced high strength bainitic steels. Chapter: 9 in:
Comprehensive Materials Processing, Edition: 2014.
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd, Editors: Hashmi, Saleem Batalha, Gilmar Ferreira Tyne, Chester J. Van Yilbas, Bekir

Bainite and diffusional-displacive transformations in: Phase Transformations in Steels. Volume 1
Phase transformations in advanced bainitic steels in: Phase Transformations in Steels. Volume 2

Bainite in steels - 2nd edition



Carbon concentration measurements by atom probe tomography in the ferritic phase of high-silicon steels

Tensile ductility of nanostructured bainitic steels: influence of retained austenite stability


Exploring bainite formation kinetics distinguishing grain-boundary and autocatalytic nucleation in high and low-Si steels

Microstructure and fracture mode of ballistic perforated plates made of unalloyed ADI material

The microstructure influence on abrasive wear behaviour of ductile irons

Low cycle fatigue behavior in a medium-carbon carbide-free bainitic steel

Correlation of fatigue limit and crack growth threshold value to the nanobainitic microstructure

Ductility of nanostructured bainite

Transformation kinetics and microstructural features in Low-Temperature Bainite after ausforming process

Developing nano bainitic structure on a low carbon carburized steel

A constitutive relationship between fatigue limit and microstructure in nanostructured bainitic steels

Effect of Si on the acceleration of bainite transformation by pre-existing martensite

Analyzing the scale of the bainitic ferrite plates by XRD, SEM and TEM

The impact of retained austenite characteristics on the two-body abrasive wear behavior of ultrahigh strength bainitic steels

Growth of bainitic ferrite and carbon partitioning during the early stages of bainite transformation in a 2 mass% siliconsteel studied by in situ neutron diffraction, TEM and APT

Isothermal transformation behavior of a low carbon HY 85 steel

Monitoring of bainite transformation using in situ neutron scattering

Critical assessment 18: Bainitic forging steels

Induced martensitic transformation during tensile test in nanostructured bainitic steels

The role of silicon, vacancies, and strain in carbon distribution in low temperature bainite

Mechanical behavior and microstructural evolution of nanostructured bainite under high-strain rate deformation by Hopkinson bar

Nano-twin in surface modified bainite induced by laser surface modification

Improving wear resistance of steels through nanocrystalline structures obtained by bainitic transformation


Bainit in Stählen mit hohem Widerstand gegen Abrasivverschleiß (Bainite in steels with high resistance to abrsive wear)

Microstructural characterization of Charpy-impact-tested nanostructured bainite

Mechanical properties of low-alloy-steels with bainitic microstructures and varying carbon content

Nanotechnology applied to steel - International Workshop

Atom probe tomography of carbides occurring in “carbide-free” bainitic steels

Preparation of carbide-Free bainitic steels for EBSD investigations

Correlative microscopy of a carbide-free bainitic steel

Modeling C-Curves for the growth rate of widmanstätten and bainitic ferrite in Fe-C alloys

Nanomechanical characterization of nanostructured bainitic steel: Peak force microscopy and nanoindentation with AFM

The role of high carbon retained austenite on mechanical properties of nano bainite

Strategies to accelerate nanostructured bainite transformation

Tensile response of two nanoscale bainite composite-like structures

Low temperature bainitic ferrite: Evidence of carbon super-saturation and tetragonality

On the role of microstructure in governing the fatigue behaviour of nanostructured bainitic steels

Detailed characterization of complex banding in air-cooled bainitic steels

A procedure for indirect and automatic measurement of prior austenite grain size in bainite/martensite microstructures


Effect of prior martensite on bainite transformation in nanobainite steel

Microstructure development and mechanical properties of medium carbon carbide-free bainite steels

Kinetics of isothermal transformation of high-carbon low-alloyed austenite and its microstructure after such treatment

Austenite–martensite/bainite orientation relationship: characterisation parameters and their application

Composition design of nanocrystalline bainitic steels by diffusionless solid reaction

Complex microstructural banding of continuously cooled carbide-free bainitic steels

Influence of transformation temperature on carbide precipitation sequence during lower bainite formation

Microstructure evolution of Fe-based nanostructured bainite coating by laser cladding

Industrialised nanocrystalline bainitic steels

In situ measured growth rates of bainite plates in an Fe-C-Mn-Si superbainitic steel

Hydrogen diffusion and the percolation of austenite in nanostructured bainitic steel

Dry rolling/sliding wear of nanostructured bainite

Free volume of "Materials Science and Technology": Adventures in the physical metallurgy of steels
Lots of interesting articles inside, for example: Superbainite: laboratory concept to commercial product


Three phase crystallography and solute distribution analysis during residual austenite decomposition in tempered nanocrystalline bainitic steels

Wear of nano-structured carbide-free bainitic steels under dry rolling–sliding conditions

New advanced ultra high strength bainitic steels: ductility and formability (DUCTAFORM)

Novel nanostructured bainitic steel grades to answer the need for high-performance steel components (Nanobain)

Data on displacements caused by the growth of bainite in steels

Evaluation of the potential of high Si high C steels nanostructured bainite for wear and fatigue applications


Phase transformations in advanced bainitic steels

Tensile behaviour of a nanocrystalline bainitic steel containing 3wt% silicon

Evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties during tempering of continuously cooled bainitic steels

New approach for the bainite start temperature calculation in steels

More complete theory for the calculation of the martensite-start temperature in steels


Thermal stability of retained austenite in bainitic steel: an in situ study

Surface relief due to bainite transformation at 473 K (200 oC)

Fatigue of extremely fine bainite


Toughness of advanced high strength bainitic steels

Carbon supersaturation of ferrite in a nanocrystalline bainitic steel

Do bainitic and Widmanstatten ferrite grow with different mechanisms?

Strain partitioning and mechanical stability of retained austenite

Nanostructured bainite

Discussion of "A personal commentary on transformation of austenite at constant subcritical temperatures"

A personal commentary on "transformation of austenite at constant subcritical temperatures"

Impact properties of tempered bainite-ferrite dual phase steels


New experimental evidence on the incomplete transformation phenomenon in steel

Metallographic evidence of carbon diffusion in the growth of bainite

Bainite orientation in plastically deformed austenite

Austenite grain size and the martensite-start temperature

Theoretical design and advanced microstructure in super high strength steels

Toughness deterioration in advanced high strength bainitic steels

The effect of bainite morphology on the mechanical properties of a high bainite dual phase (HBDP) steel

Comparison of mechanical properties of martensite/ferrite and bainite/ferrite dual phase 4340 steels


Redistribution of alloying elements during tempering of a nanocrystalline steel

Effect of ferrite volume fraction on work hardening behavior of high bainite dual phase (DP) steels

Kinetics of bainite transformation in low-carbon iron-based alloys (in Russian)

Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Austenite and Bainitic Ferrite


Crystallographic texture of stress-affected bainite

Atomic scale observations of bainite transformation in a high carbon high silicon steel


Mechanical stabilisation of austenite


Mechanical properties of low-temperature bainite

In-situ observations of lattice parameter fluctuations in austenite and transformation to bainite


Kinetics of the bainite transformation


Very strong low temperature bainite

Paradigm shift for bainite

Bainite: defect signatures

Formation of bainite as a diffusional-displacive phase transformation


On the misuse of the term bainite


Strength of as-cast high speed steel after bainite treatment

Miscellaneous interesting scientific things

Denne designs
3D printed math models